In some research studies, scholars have been able to establish that customer satisfaction has a strong emotional, i. Especially for durable goods that are consumed over time, there is value to taking a dynamic perspective on customer satisfaction. Within a dynamic perspective, customer satisfaction can evolve over time as customers repeatedly use a product or interact with a service.
The satisfaction experienced with each interaction transactional satisfaction can influence the overall, cumulative satisfaction. Scholars showed that it is not just overall customer satisfaction, but also customer loyalty that evolves over time.
It is negatively confirmed when a product performs more poorly than expected. There are four constructs to describe the traditional disconfirmation paradigm mentioned as expectations, performance, disconfirmation and satisfaction. In operation, satisfaction is somehow similar to attitude as it can be evaluated as the sum of satisfactions with some features of a product. Churchill and Suprenant in , evaluated various studies in the literature and formed an overview of Disconfirmation process in the following figure: Organizations need to retain existing customers while targeting non-customers.
It can be, and often is, measured along various dimensions. A hotel, for example, might ask customers to rate their experience with its front desk and check-in service, with the room, with the amenities in the room, with the restaurants, and so on.
Additionally, in a holistic sense, the hotel might ask about overall satisfaction 'with your stay. As research on consumption experiences grows, evidence suggests that consumers purchase goods and services for a combination of two types of benefits: Hedonic benefits are associated with the sensory and experiential attributes of the product. Utilitarian benefits of a product are associated with the more instrumental and functional attributes of the product Batra and Athola The state of satisfaction depends on a number of both psychological and physical variables which correlate with satisfaction behaviors such as return and recommend rate.
The level of satisfaction can also vary depending on other options the customer may have and other products against which the customer can compare the organization's products. Work done by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry Leonard L  between and provides the basis for the measurement of customer satisfaction with a service by using the gap between the customer's expectation of performance and their perceived experience of performance. This provides the measurer with a satisfaction "gap" which is objective and quantitative in nature.
The usual measures of customer satisfaction involve a survey  using a Likert scale. The customer is asked to evaluate each statement in terms of their perceptions and expectations of performance of the organization being measured.
Good quality measures need to have high satisfaction loadings, good reliability, and low error variances. In an empirical study comparing commonly used satisfaction measures it was found that two multi-item semantic differential scales performed best across both hedonic and utilitarian service consumption contexts.
It loaded most highly on satisfaction, had the highest item reliability, and had by far the lowest error variance across both studies. A semantic differential 4 items scale e. In the study, respondents were asked to evaluate their experience with both products, along seven points within these four items: Finally, all measures captured both affective and cognitive aspects of satisfaction, independent of their scale anchors.
Recent research shows that in most commercial applications, such as firms conducting customer surveys, a single-item overall satisfaction scale performs just as well as a multi-item scale. The ACSI measures customer satisfaction annually for more than companies in 43 industries and 10 economic sectors.
In addition to quarterly reports, the ACSI methodology can be applied to private sector companies and government agencies in order to improve loyalty and purchase intent.
The Kano model is a theory of product development and customer satisfaction developed in the s by Professor Noriaki Kano that classifies customer preferences into five categories: The Kano model offers some insight into the product attributes which are perceived to be important to customers.
Power and Associates provides another measure of customer satisfaction, known for its top-box approach and automotive industry rankings. Power and Associates' marketing research consists primarily of consumer surveys and is publicly known for the value of its product awards. Other research and consulting firms have customer satisfaction solutions as well. For B2B customer satisfaction surveys, where there is a small customer base, a high response rate to the survey is desirable.
In the European Union member states, many methods for measuring impact and satisfaction of e-government services are in use, which the eGovMoNet project sought to compare and harmonize. The expected level of performance versus the desired expectations.
Expected Value from Use: Satisfaction is often determined by the frequency of use. Webinar May 29, Measuring Expectations In building a customer satisfaction survey, it is also helpful to consider reasons why pre-purchase expectations or post-purchase satisfaction may not be fulfilled or even measurable. Expectations may not reflect unanticipated service attributes. Expectations may have been quite vague, creating wide latitudes of acceptability in performance and expected satisfaction.
Expectation and product performance evaluations may be sensory and not cognitive, as in taste, style or image.
The product use may attract so little attention it produces no conscious affect or cognition evaluation and results in meaningless satisfaction or dissatisfaction measures. There may have been unanticipated benefits or consequences of purchasing or using the product such as a use or feature not anticipated with purchase.
Satisfaction is an overall psychological state that reflects the evaluation of a relationship between the customer or consumer and a company, environment, product or service. Satisfaction involves one of the following three psychological elements: cognitive (thinking/evaluation), affective (emotional/feeling), and .
It covers customer satisfaction concepts, theories and models, service quality concepts and models and customer behavioural intentions referral concepts and models. Definition of Service Services are deeds, performances and processes provided or coproduced by one entity or person for and with another entity or person (Zeithaml et al, ).
The theory of customer service is based on identifying and satisfying your customers' needs and exceeding their expectations. A company must be totally committed to delivering consistently high standards of service to gain and retain customer loyalty. theories have been applied and tested in laboratory settings where the customer satisfaction was ti ghtly controlled, situation specific and individuall y focused. For instance, researchers.
Czepiel et al () maintain the validity of two factor theory in relation to analysing customer satisfaction. Two factor theory states that customers can be satisfied and dissatisfied with a product or a service at the same time, because satisfaction and dissatisfaction will be about different aspects of the product or service, thus, they will be unrelated. The study presents a strong background on the theories of customer satisfaction measurement and interpretation. satisfaction literature in the form of assimilation theory by Anderson , in his work on consumer dissatisfaction; the effect of disconfirmed expectancy on perceived product.