These follow other recent incidents and controversies, including an April finding by the U. Surveys in recent years with minority groups — Latinos and African-Americans , in particular — suggest that confidence in law enforcement is relatively low, and large portions of these communities believe police are likely to use excessive force on suspects. A Pew Research Center survey confirms stark racial divisions in response to the Ferguson police shooting, as well, while Gallup provides insights on historical patterns of distrust.
Citizens seldom learn of the countless incidents where officers choose to hold fire and display restraint under extreme stress. But as the FBI points out, police departments and officers sometimes do not handle the aftermath of incidents well in terms of transparency and clarity, even when force was reasonably applied, fueling public confusion and anger. In , 49, officers were assaulted in the line of duty, with an injury rate of Twenty-seven were murdered that year.
How common are such incidents of police use of force, both lethal and non-lethal, in the United States? Has there been progress in America? The indisputable reality is that we do not fully know. Comey stated the following in a remarkable February speech:.
Without a doubt, training for police has become more standardized and professionalized in recent decades. Related jurisprudence is still being defined, most recently in the Scott v. Harris decision by the U. But inadequate data and reporting — and the challenge of uniformly defining excessive versus justified force — make objective understanding of trends difficult. The Justice Department releases statistics on this and related issues, although these datasets are only periodically updated: In terms of the use of lethal force, aggregate statistics on incidents of all types are difficult to obtain from official sources.
Some journalists are trying to rectify this; and some data journalists question what few official national statistics are available. The available data, which does not paint a complete national picture, nevertheless raise serious questions, Sunlight notes:. That statistic is taken from data collected for the years However, Oklahoma, the District of Columbia, Nevada and Oregon are all tied for the rate at which people are killed. In this paragraph, you introduce a fourth perspective, piece of research or statistic to support your claim.
Consider quoting an expert with a different perspective than you have previously covered in this paper. A potential solution towards reducing police brutality can be found in the work of [name of author, researcher or public figure.
The conclusion should give a sense of why the issue remains relevant or important. It is important to document exactly where you found the information you used in your paper. Your references will often come from published sources including books, articles, other research papers and electronic sources such as web sites, e-books and audio or video media.
General Information about Creating a References Page: Introduction Starting Sentence Option 1: National Institute of Justice information on use of force. Department of Justice information on use of force and excessive force.
Police brutality is also known as the excessive use of force by a law enforcement officer in the process of resolving a conflict. Police brutality has a long history involving many political, economic and social factors. The protection of the fourth amendment, however, is shrinking; it can only be used with the presence of a warrant Meeks, 9.
The presence of the warrant keeps from unlawful police searches and abuse to occur. Racial profiling is the more common form of police brutality. This is the most frequent violation of the fourth amendment. It is the tactic of stopping someone because of his or her skin color. Racial profiling mainly targets young Black and Latino men and is believed to be a justified form of law enforcement. In other words, it is a form of legal prejudice that occurs daily nationwide.
Although, there are many questionable areas in racial profiling that cannot be avoided nor proven. First, it is difficult to prove, in a majority of cases there is no evidence and the police officers can claim the stop to be a routine traffic stop. An example of this is when a black person is pulled over for a traffic violation the type of vehicle is first determined and then their skin color. Harassment takes place and no one can prove this but the victim and the police officer.
Secondly, the courts have to acknowledge that racial profiling occurred and in most cases this is hard to prove. There are also other forms of racial profiling. In many professions, this type of profiling is used as a form as security.
Taxi drivers and security personnel engage in profiling when they feel fearful or threatened. Taxi drivers use this type of judgment when refusing to pick up a customer at night and security guards use it to find suspects while working.
Racial profiling is considered to be a profile used by police officers to identify suspicious criminal or violators of the law. A typical profile used is the CARD system. CARD is an acronym for class, age, race, and dress. This system is used to fit individuals into categories for means of identification. The problem with the CARD system is that many minorities fall into this category.
This makes them primary targets and poses a problem for some of the white people that also fall into this category. Nevertheless, there are a few positive sides to profiling. For one, it can be considered to be a survival skill, allowing one to see if people are doing justice. Secondly, it puts people on an innate level. Profiling shows signs about people and certain criteria.
Lastly, it is not considered to be racism. Police officers who use profiling use it as a tool because they think that they are color blind in certain situations.
Excessive or reasonable force by police? Research on law enforcement and racial conflict Keywords: crime, local reporting, racism, violence, police enforcement, police brutality, body cameras, technology, policing. Last updated: July 28, .
But through the history of police brutality, police brutality was first used after a police officer was described beating a civilian in Police brutality is the abuse of force and it is usually through physical.
December 5, Police brutality. Police brutality is one of the most serious and divisive human rights violations in the United States and it occurs in every community. The job of a police officer is to maintain public order, prevent, and detect crime. Police brutality refers to the use of excessive force against a civilian. The controversies that surround the topic of police brutality relate to different READ MORE HERE.
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