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Instrument, Validity, Reliability

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❶Recall that a sample should be an accurate representation of a population, because the total population may not be available.

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They can be divided into single group threats, multiple group threats, and social interaction threats. For more information, on the threats to validity click here.

Reliability is defined as the consistency of the measurements. To what level will the instrument produce the same results under the same conditions every time it is used? Reliability adds to the trustworthiness of the results because it is a testament to the methodology if the results are reproducible.

The reliability is often examined by using a test and retest method where the measurement are taken twice at two different times. The reliability is critical for being able to reproduce the results, however, the validity must be confirmed first to ensure that the measurements are accurate.

Consistent measurements will only be useful if they are accurate and valid. The term falsifiability mean that any for any hypothesis to have credence, it must be possible to test whether that hypothesis may be incorrect. If a theory or hypothesis cannot be tested in such a way that may disprove it, it will likely not be considered scientific or valuable to those in the field. Generalizability refers to whether or not the research findings and conclusions that result from the study are generalizable to the larger population or other similar situations.

The ability to generalize results allows researchers to interpret and apply findings in a broader context, making the finding relevant and meaningful.

Replication is the reproducibility of the study. Will the methodology produce the same results when used by different researchers studying similar subjects?

Replication is important because it ensures the validity and reliability of the results and allows the results to be generalized. Consideration of all of these issues is important to the results of a research study.

For further details and specific examples, see the Resources Links on the right side of this page. Validity is seen by many as being the primary issue that should be examined. The following Slideshare presentation, General Issues in Research Design, discusses validity in further depth, along with other issues that should be addressed in research studies. Reliability and Validity — The following resources defines and discusses reliability and validity and discusses threats to each.

Validity and Reliability Issues in Educational Research — This journal article discusses the importance of validity and reliability in educational and social research. Generalizability and Transferability — The resource below provides basic defines as well as additional links on the right side that further explore generalizability and transferability in research.

Falsifiability — This link leads to a brief discussion of falsifiability in research. Replication — This resource provides a brief discussion of the importance of replicability of research results and contains links that further examine the topic. This pin will expire , on Change.

This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Reliability is directly related to the validity of the measure.

There are several important principles. First, a test can be considered reliable, but not valid. Consider the SAT, used as a predictor of success in college. It is a reliable test high scores relate to high GPA , though only a moderately valid indicator of success due to the lack of structured environment — class attendance, parent-regulated study, and sleeping habits — each holistically related to success.

Second, validity is more important than reliability. Using the above example, college admissions may consider the SAT a reliable test, but not necessarily a valid measure of other quantities colleges seek, such as leadership capability, altruism, and civic involvement.

Finally, the most useful instrument is both valid and reliable. Proponents of the SAT argue that it is both. Thus far, we have discussed Instrumentation as related to mostly quantitative measurement. Some qualitative researchers reject the concept of validity due to the constructivist viewpoint that reality is unique to the individual, and cannot be generalized.

These researchers argue for a different standard for judging research quality. This resource was created by Dr. The Instrument Instrument is the general term that researchers use for a measurement device survey, test, questionnaire, etc. Examples are listed below: Example usability problems include: Students are asked to rate a lesson immediately after class, but there are only a few minutes before the next class begins problem with administration. Students are asked to keep self-checklists of their after school activities, but the directions are complicated and the item descriptions confusing problem with interpretation.

For now, we can identify five usability considerations: How long will it take to administer? Are the directions clear? How easy is it to score? Do equivalent forms exist? Have any problems been reported by others who used it? Validity Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform. Reliability Reliability can be thought of as consistency. It is not possible to calculate reliability; however, there are four general estimators that you may encounter in reading research: The consistency of a measure evaluated over time.

The reliability of two tests constructed the same way, from the same content.

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Quantitative Research: Reliability and Validity. Reliability. Definition: Reliability is the consistency of your measurement, or the degree to which an instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same condition with .

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The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is reconsidered in the qualitative research paradigm. Since reliability and validity are rooted in positivist perspective then they should be redefined for their use in a naturalistic approach. Like reliability and.

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In quantitative research, this is achieved through measurement of the validity and reliability.1 Validity is defined as the extent to which a concept is accurately measured in a quantitative study. For example, a survey designed to explore depression but which actually measures anxiety would not be considered valid. PDF | On Jan 1, , Roberta Heale and others published Validity and reliability in quantitative research.

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Validity. Validity is defined as the extent to which a concept is accurately measured in a quantitative study. For example, a survey designed to explore depression but which actually measures anxiety would not be considered valid. The second measure of quality in a quantitative study is reliability, or the accuracy of an other words, the extent to which a research . Key Issues in Quantitative Research. Define validity, reliability, falsifiability, generalizability, and reproducibility as they relate to quantitative research. Explain the importance of each in a quantitative study.