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❶Synonyms of ' self-determination '.

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Since , Baloch nationalists in Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan have been seeking to separate Baloch majority regions of the three countries to form a new state with the help of elements outside the aforementioned countries. The movement has culminated in several armed uprisings in both Pakistan and Iran, that have been crushed, especially during the s inspired by Bengali nationalists.

This is supported by arch-rival countries such as the Republic of India and Bangladesh. The Basque Country Basque: Euskal Herria , Spanish: Pays Basque as a cultural region not to be confused with the homonym Autonomous Community of the Basque country is a European region in the western Pyrenees that spans the border between France and Spain, on the Atlantic coast.

Since the 19th century, Basque nationalism has demanded the right of some kind of self-determination. The right of self-determination was asserted by the Basque Parliament in , and There are not many sources on the issue for the French Basque country.

Founded in , it evolved from a group advocating traditional cultural ways to a paramilitary group with the goal of Basque independence. Its ideology is Marxist-Leninist. After years of ethnic friction culminating in the massacre of the Ibos in the Northern and Western Nigeria between and in which an estimated population of , Easterners were killed in a planned pogrom, the Eastern Region headed by Lt Col Odumegwu Ojukwu started a secessionist movement in Nigeria which resulted in the creation of the Republic of Biafra to protect the Easterners from annihilation.

The inhabitants were mostly the Igbo people who led the secession due to economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions. This led to the Nigerian Civil War which would have been avoided if the Nigerian leaders had not violated the Aburi Accord made between the Biafrans and the Nigerians which guaranteed self-governance to the then four geopolitical regions.

After initial military gains, the Biafran forces were pushed back and in Biafra was reabsorbed into Nigeria after an estimated population of 3 million Biafrans including women and children had been killed through the war starvation policy of the Nigerian Government. What the Ibos Want" where the author delved into the etimology and etiology of the words "Biafra", "Ibo" and "Igbo" and proved that "Biafra" is an ancient word in the Igbo language which was lost many centuries ago just like other Igbo words have been lost.

The word "Biafra" appeared for the first time in the ancient map of Africa drawn by the Portuguese from to when it was spelt as Biafara, Biafar, and Biafares. From to the present day, the indigenous people of Biafra have been agitating for independence to revive their ancient country.

They have registered a human rights organization known as Bilie Human Rights Initiative both in Nigeria and in the United Nations to advocate for their right to self-determination and achieve independence by the rule of law. In addition, they have revived the Radio Biafra as a powerful media tool to educate their people. In recent times a public debate has started in the media on the rights of the indigenous people of Biafra.

In response to those opposing the independence of Biafra, the solicitor for the indigenous people of Biafra made a strong argument in both national and international law asserting that what Nigeria got after the Biafra War of Independence was a military conquest and not a political victory.

He submitted that what Biafra lost after the war was its sovereignty and not its people and therefore the remnants who were not consumed by the war are still protected under the law to exercise their right to self-determination as indigenous people of Biafra.

Thus, the quest to revive Biafra is gathering momentum both at national and international levels as it is now being championed by legal methods. At the moment, Nigeria is made up of six geopolitical regions which are capable of self-governance.

In recent times, separatist aspirations have been growing again in Nigeria, not only by the indigenous people of Biafra but also by other ethnic groups both in the North and in the South, giving a clear sign that Nigeria may not remain the same, but will either be restructured to guarantee self-governance to the six geopolitical regions similar to the Aburi Accord or break up, disintegrate and go into oblivion like one of the ancient empires we read in history.

In Canada , many in the province of Quebec have wanted the province to separate from Confederation. The Parti Quebecois has asserted Quebec's "right to self-determination. Today there are movements supporting the independence of the Catalan Countries in both Spain and France, but they only have significant support in Catalonia. Furthermore, there are other Catalan groups and movements that seek the independence of the Catalan Countries as a whole, such as: All these political parties and movements believe in non-violence and express their ideas in a non-violent manner.

Recently, there have been a series of non-binding, unofficial referenda or "popular votes" consultes populars, in Catalan , a binding referendum for independence is illegal in Spain held in municipalities around Catalonia, in which voters indicated whether they support Catalan independence from Spain.

The number of voters was ,, representing Under Dzhokkar Dudayev, Chechnya declared independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria , using self-determination, Russia's history of bad treatment of Chechens, and a history of independence before invasion by Russia as main motives. Russia has restored control over Chechnya, but the separatist government functions still in exile, though it has been split into two entities: The British government have stated that the majority of the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands wish to remain British and therefore the transfer of sovereignty to Argentina would be counter to their right to self-determination.

The population has existed for over nine generations, continuously for over years, and on territory claimed as British since when the first recorded landing took place. This is in reference to the re-establishment of British rule in the year considered a continuation of sovereignty by the latter, but an illegal invasion from Argentine point of view during which Argentina claims the River Plate population living in the islands was expelled.

The existing population was in fact encouraged to remain by the British [ 69 ] who made no attempt to colonise the islands till In this case, Argentina claims the principle of territorial integrity should have precedence over self-determination see in this same article Self Determination versus Territorial Integrity , considering the proximity of the islands to the continental territory, whereas from the British point of view, self-determination for a long-established population is a more important factor than proximity, notwithstanding that Britain had settled the islands before Argentinian territory included any of Patagonia the region of Argentina bordering the Falklands.

From the Argentine point of view, Britain is applying self-determination for a purpose opposite to what they see as its original conception, that was preventing the continuation of colonialism throughout the world after World War II, and in this sense, they would be far from a truthful defense of a democratic principle as self-determination.

British Prime Minister David Cameron, on the other hand, described Argentina's position as more colonialism. The right to self-determination as outlined in public international law is often referenced by both sides in the ongoing Israel-Palestinian conflict. United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 , adopted in , called for a plebiscite to decide the fate of Kashmir. Some groups have suggested that a third option of Independence be added to the resolutions two options of union with India or union with Pakistan.

International negotiations to determine the final status of Kosovo were unsuccessful. On 17 February , members 10 members including all Kosovo Serbs were absent of the Kosovo Assembly voted unanimously for a unilateral declaration of independence.

Kosovo independence is disputed and supervised by the international community following the conclusion of the political process to determine Kosovo's final status envisaged in UN Security Council Resolution On 22 July , the International Court of Justice gave the following advisory opinion: Kurdistan is a historical region primarily inhabited by the Kurdish people of the middle east.

The territory is currently part of 4 states Turkey , Iraq , Syria and Iran. There are Kurdish self determination movements in each of the 4 states.

Iraqi Kurdistan has to date achieved the largest degree of self-determination through the formation of the Kurdistan Regional Government , an entity recognised by the Iraqi Federal Constitution. To date two separate Kurdish republics and one Kurdish Kingdom have declared sovereignty. The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan which currently holds the Iraqi presidency and the Kurdistan Democratic Party which governs the Kurdistan Regional Government both explicitly commit themselves to the development of Kurdish self-determination, but opinions vary as to the question of self-determination sought within the current borders and countries.

The name of this part of the country consists of two Azerbaijani words: However, the majority Armenian population of the region refers to it by its previous Armenian name, Artsakh. As far as the right of peoples to self-determination is concerned, it is well known [ citation needed ] that, in reality, the practical realization of this right, as stipulated in the relevant international documents, does not involve unilateral secession, but represents a legitimate process carried out in accordance with international and domestic law within precisely identified limits.

There are two critical factors to be addressed in the issue of Nagorno-Karabakh. Firstly, it is the extent of self-determination a people are given to protect themselves and determine how they wish to be ruled and what role is played by human rights violations, cultural eradication and pogroms by the Azerbaijani majority against the Armenian communities of Azerbaijan in a decision.

Secondly, one must regard the question of legality of unconstitutional acts, such as violating the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan. Other considerations of the rules of international law, particularly those prohibiting the use of force and the acquisition of territory, are also relevant in that the Soviet authorities and, subsequently, the Azerbaijani government applied use of military and paramilitary force in ethnic cleansing initiatives like Operation Ring , while the Armenian community of Nagorno-Karabakh established militia forces to resist further pogroms and defend the civilian population by repelling Azeri forces.

Secession movements have surfaced several times in the South Island of New Zealand. The desire for South Island independence was one of the main factors in moving the capital of New Zealand from Auckland to Wellington that year. Moves towards Scottish Independence from the United Kingdom are being led by the majority Scottish National Party government in the Scottish Parliament , with a plebiscite scheduled for the Autumn of The people of Southern Cameroons' claim to self-determination arises out of their allegations that the Republic of Cameroun forcefully annexed their territory by the take over of the territory and the dissolution of the federation in favor of a Unitary Republic of Cameroon.

Southern Cameroons scored a victory in a legal battle against the Republic of Cameroon when the African Commission for Human and Peoples' Rights found that there were unresolved issues with the constitutional structure of the Republic of Cameroon vis-a-vis Southern Cameroons. More importantly, the African Commission found that contrary to the claims of the Republic of Cameroon, the people of Southern Cameroons are indeed a "people" under the African Charter and broad international law with the inalienable right to determine their destiny.

Southern Sudan reached a peace agreement with Sudan in It contained a referendum for self-determination in January , during which an overwhelming majority voting for secession from northern Sudan.

The Sri Lankan Tamils people seek self determination due to ethnic pogroms and discrimination by the majority Sinhala government's discrimination in language, education, jobs, and civil liberties. Tamil independence advocates argue that former sovereignty of Tamils in their north eastern homeland that was lost during colonialism should be re-instated to meet Tamil aspirations. Taiwan is the focus of a self-determination dispute in the East Asia region.

The government of the People's Republic of China claims the entirety of Taiwan as its territory. However, Taiwanese independence advocates argue that there is no legal claim to Taiwan, as no legally binding treaty ever transferred sovereignty to China following World War II, an assertion with which not only the People's Republic of China but the Republic of China currently governing Taiwan disagree.

This de facto government of Taiwan also has not formally withdrawn its claims to China and several other areas. The People's Republic of China proposes that the island become its own special administrative region of China. From its unification from CE until and from to , Tibet was a sovereign nation.

In , when the Dalai Lama was 15 years old and thus not yet the head of state, the Chinese government ordered a military march into Tibet in order to force the Tibetan government to negotiate its sovereignty. When negotiations failed, China invaded. Tibet was then forced to "peacefully negotiate" its sovereignty, and ceded rule over Tibet to China in the Seventeen Point Agreement in The Dalai Lama has repudiated the agreement, claiming that it was signed under compulsion and that Chinese government forged Tibetan government seals.

The delegates who allegedly represented Tibet were either chosen by the Chinese or were prisoners of Chinese, and were not allowed to communicate with the official Tibetan government during negotiations.

Since the agreement, there have been widespread reports of political and religious oppression of Tibetans by the Chinese. The Tibetan government in exile, located in India, has continuously called for Tibet's sovereignty to be restored, or alternatively, in recent years, for greater political autonomy for the Tibetan region within the Chinese political system.

Since Turkey's invasion and continued occupation of Cyprus in , following ethnic clashes and turmoil on the island, an administration recognized by Turkey only was declared in — the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

The colonization of the North American continent and its Native American population has been the source of legal battles since the early 19th century. Surviving Native Americans have been resettled onto separate tracts of land reservations , which have been given a certain degree of autonomy within the United States federal government.

There is an active Hawaiian sovereignty movement which aims at recreating an independent Hawaiian nation or territorial units similar to Indian reservations. Some wish to reinstate the Hawaiian monarchy, which lost its soverignty largely because of the United States. Since , the U. Decolonization Committee has called for Puerto Rico 's decolonization and for the U. In the Decolonization Subcommittee called for the United Nations General Assembly to review the political status of Puerto Rico, a power reserved by the Resolution.

In the first plebscite the commonwealth option won with In subsequent plebiscites in and , the status quo was upheld. So-called " Confederate Southern Americans ", defined as white Christian descendents of those resident in the Confederate States of America at the onset of the Civil War preferably having Scots or Scots-Irish descent , are seeking a "natural right to self-determination" by claiming "oppressed minority" status through Neo-Confederate groups such as the League of the South.

This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors see full disclaimer. All translations of Self Determination. A windows pop-into of information full-content of Sensagent triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites!

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Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. For other uses, see Self-determination disambiguation. Map of the world in , showing United Nations Trusteeship Council territories in green [ 11 ]. International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Self-determination of Australian Aborigines.

International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the legality of Kosovo's unilaterally proclaimed independence. Political Status of Taiwan. Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Since , p. Hensel and Michael E. Period from 30 Jan to 20 March ".

Zimbabwe African National Union. Agreement relating to Malaysia" PDF. United Nations Treaty Collection. Self-Determination and National Minorities.

Retrieved 5 March UN Department of Public Information. Retrieved March 10, Theory and Practice of Secession , p. White , 74 U. Retrieved May 19, Quebec nationalism in crisis. Onslow told the Argentine garrison to leave but asked civilians to stay, as most of them did.

What are the competing claims? Retrieved 25 February Retrieved 12 August Kosovo , BBC News. The Kosovar people thank you". The crisis in Sri Lanka: Louis Post-Dispatch , July 25, The Self-Determination of Peoples: Lynne Rienner Publishers , A Sourcebook , Boulder: Joanne Barker Editor , Sovereignty Matters: Antonio Cassese, Self-Determination of Peoples: Percy Lehning, Theories of Secession , Routledge, Conflict resolution Cultural diversity Cultural heritage Freedom from forced assimilation Freedom from forced removal Freedom from racial discrimination Freedom of religion Gender equality Human rights Indigenous intellectual property Indigenous language Land rights Land-use planning Right to determine indigeneity Self-determination Traditional knowledge.

Retrieved from " http: It may not have been reviewed by professional editors see full disclaimer Donate to Wikimedia. Webmaster Solution Alexandria A windows pop-into of information full-content of Sensagent triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Crawl products or adds Get XML access to reach the best products. Fostering self-determination among children and youth with disabilities: Manufacturers and distributors could satisfy this requirement by taking a self-determined "GRAS" position that the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use.

There are several important steps to take in determining whether you need to file an NDI notification. TWO sub-laws were proposed during a human rights session last night which would allow writers, poets and journalists the freedom to express themselves within self-determined boundaries, said Bahrain Writers Association chairman Ibrahim Bu Hindi. Laws to guard writers' freedom are proposed.

Self-determination theory SDT is a theory of human motivation according to which human beings have natural tendencies to actively engage within their social context, and it focuses on the degree to which their behaviours are volitional or self-determined , i. Perceptions of classroom climate and motivation to study English in Saudi Arabia: Elaboracion de un cuestionario para medir percepciones y motivacion.

With regard to business education and ethics, particular attention should be paid to the concept of competency as well as the self-determined taking on of one's own position. Self-determination theory distinguishes among three types of behavioral regulation that are associated with varying degrees of self-determined motivation. Using self-determination theory to explain sport persistence and dropout in adolescent athletes. In contrast, many job planning and placement decisions gain validity only when students or adult employees themselves provide a self-determined voice Brady et al.

Evaluating work performance and support needs in supported employment training programs: The most self-determined form of motivation is intrinsic motivation IM , or doing the activity for its own sake.

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The right of self-determination is the international expression of this challenge. And life belongs to him; for the self-determination of thought is life, and he is self-determination. Reason manifested in the forms of power is self-determination.

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Synonyms for self determination at with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Find descriptive alternatives for self determination.

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14 synonyms of self-determination from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 25 related words, definitions, and antonyms. Find another word for self-determination. the act or power of making oneʼs own choices or decisions Synonyms: accord, autonomy, choice. Synonyms for self-determination This thesaurus page is about all possible synonyms, equivalent, same meaning and similar words for the term self-determination. Princeton's WordNet ( / 0 votes) Rate these synonyms: self-government, self-determination, self-rule (noun).

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Self-determination theory is particularly focused on the processes through which a person acquires the motivation for initiating new health-related behaviors and maintaining them over time. Self determination theory and potential applications to alcohol and drug abuse behaviors. Antonyms for self-determination at with free online thesaurus, synonyms, definitions and translations.