These factors, coupled with the very high ecologically-driven mortality in early life history stages, mean that investigations of warming effects on recruitment and early community development in marine benthic groups are an essential step towards understanding ecosystem level responses to change. The Antarctic sessile marine benthos Sublittoral sessile epifaunal assemblages are often characterised by similar group of organisms, potentially allowing comparisons of the effects of environmental variation on basic biological and ecological processes to be made between regions.
The Antarctic benthos has been studied from the earliest expeditions and there has been much interest in the rates of biological and ecological processes in relation to other latitudes See reviews by Clarke, However, with notable exceptions Dayton et al. There is therefore no empirical data that explains the mechanisms and ecological processes involved. The latter is primarily a consequence of sampling difficulties associated with the slow rates of biological processes in the region and loss of equipment through ice impacts during prolonged deployment.
Existing studies of benthic assemblages in Antarctica suggest three distinctive characteristics. First, growth in most taxa is slow by comparison with similar taxa at lower latitudes Pearse et al. This may be due to physiological limitations associated with low temperature, food limitation due to temporally-limited primary production or a combination of these factors Clarke et al. Second, growth in many taxa is highly seasonal, primarily restricted to the summer period of primary production.
Notable exceptions include shell growth in brachiopods and 1 infaunal bivalve species, which take place during winter Peck et al. Third, the principal factor determining sessile assemblage structure in nearshore waters is the gradient of decreasing physical disturbance by ice with increasing depth Gutt, Cheilostome bryozoans together with spirorbid polychaetes are the most abundant group in the Antarctic, in terms of number of recruits and areal coverage Barnes et al.
There is a high variability of areal cover. Using settlement plates, Osman and Greene et al. A later study by Todd identified that differences in area coverage were dependent on the season of initial immersion.
Thus, the timing of the first immersion indicates that timing of disturbance and hence, the availability of free space, is an important factor in determining the taxonomic composition of Antarctic assemblages. This effect is primarily caused by the pre-emption of space by initial recruits, which settle in high densities and grow rapidly E. Essay UK - http: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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For all of these changes that, in the end, affect everyone, the nations of the world have not all gone about this issue in the same way. Currently, the threat of global climate change does not threaten some to the same extent of others. The shortsightedness of those that are not yet drastically effected is one of the most serious issues that the world deals with now and fundamental changes must be made to advert a global crisis that everyone may face if no actions are taken.
One of the most basic resources that has been the most affected by climate change is water. Water is an essential component to many different areas of everyday life. From consumption to production, the use of water is so essential that without it, the continuation of human life on this planet would be impossible.
It is quite worrisome, therefore, to examine the diminishing quantity of usable water for humanity is currently facing. According to Lester R Brown, what we are now experiencing can be seen as analogous to being on an edge, and we seriously face falling off.
As he notes, the global population increases by 80 million people annually, and this could be disastrous to the supply and distribution of water. Those in poorer nations are often looked at with sympathy for their lack of the basic necessities of life , but in the end of the day, little is done to improve their situations. Take the declaration for declaring water as a basic human right. Under this proposal, water would be declared as a basic human right and the UN would set forth procedures and guidelines to help provide it to those countries where scarcity of water is a pending issue PLoS Medicine, This resolution was voted down, exploiting one of the largest hindrances to acts to effect and deal with issues such as climate change: These companies did not want to see the declaration passed and have done all they could to see it fail.
This is not an uncommon when it comes to getting money at the cost of global health and safety. Nations around the world have taken their own means to secure the longevity of their homeland, even if it at the expense of others.
A perfect example of this is the glacial water supply issue that currently faces eastern and central Asia. As global temperatures rise more and more yearly, the size of the glaciers of the area continue to diminish. For many nations that depend on the glaciers as a source of fresh water, the decrease in their size is quite alarming. For these nations like Indonesia , the next available source of water is through rivers that run through their land, however the flow of said rivers can be altered by other nations.
China controls the sources of many of the rivers of the region and they have been damming up those rivers to keep the majority of the water in their nation. One major concern for these actions is with the relations between China and India. What the world needs now is not conflict and strife between nations but a solution to this issue. The world must come together to try to address and solve some of the pressing issues of climate change.
This can start with developed nations taking initiative, considering that they are historically the most responsible for this issue. Some of these suggestions include: Though some of the other solutions offered by this agreement are a bit extreme, the message remains clear: What the world needs to do is to truly empower a multinational governmental body to combat these changes facing the planet.
The UN, though excellent theoretically, is essentially toothless in inflicting punishments against nations that go against its mandates.
An order must be established that not only can lay down actions that must be undertaken by nations, but this agency must have the ability to give meaningful punishment to those that go against its mandates and recommendations.
Our actions against global climate change to this point have been ineffective. The developed, wealthy nations of the world have not had to suffer the consequences of climate change the same way that poorer nations have had to, however this may change with the way the world has been heading. If our actions go unchecked, the world will enter an era where wars may no longer be fought for land and oil but are fought for basic resources such as water.
To address and combat these issues, a new, multinational agency must be formed in order to fairly address these issues. As efforts like the Paris climate talks have been productive, it's clearly not enough. The body will have the ability to force the world to adapt climate change legislature that will no longer be ignored. The options of the world are growing thinner. Should the US heartland see an increase in temperatures as Moscow did in its recent summer, the world could see a million ton loss in grain production Brown, This issue is on the magnitude that affects the entire planet and population.
Keywords: climate change, global warming, greenhouse gases. Climate change in the world can be caused by various activities. When climate change occurs; temperatures can increase a dramatically. .
Essay about climate changes Nowadays climate change is the biggest problem of the human being. It is already happening and represents one of the greatest environmental, social .
Pollution Essay: Climate Change - This essay is going to describe what the greenhouse effect is and what it does. It is also going to say what causes the greenhouse effect and the consequences of it. Climate change is one of the most important global issues facing the world today. Climate change has the potential to drastically impact the future of the human race, and 4/5(22).
Global climate has been changing and still continue to change. Over a long period of time, climatic fluctuations may be such that, a shift in type of climate prevailing over a given area, takes place. Global climate change is caused by the fertiliser that used for agricultures. The result of microbial action in the soil, these chemical will release nitrous oxide. Besides that, the emission of methane and carbon dioxide will also affect climate changes.