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Research Paper on Malaria in Africa

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Malaria Research in Africa
Essay, term paper, research paper: Medicine

These nonhuman primate hosts of human malarias and of the simian malaria parasites also offer faithful models to investigate mechanisms and treatments for severe pathology associated with malaria infections such as anemia, cerebral malaria, and malaria in pregnancy.

In Liberia, a worker uses an RDT to test a blood sample for malaria. The malaria laboratories at CDC in conjunction with WHO and the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics FIND conduct extensive laboratory-based evaluations on the performance of commercial RDTs on the global market as well as investigation into a variety of other issues connected with the development and deployment of these new diagnostic tests.

Along with the successes of malaria prevention and control have come potential threats to the continued effectiveness of certain existing interventions.

The malaria parasite previously has developed resistance to antimalarials that contained only one drug or drug combinations with the same mode of action. Artemisinin-based combination therapies ACTs combine two antimalarial drugs with different half-lives and modes of action. It is expected that combination therapy will reduce the chances that parasites will develop resistance, but good surveillance must be undertaken to ensure that any resistance that develops is identified early and contained.

CDC is supporting therapeutic efficacy studies in many countries using a protocol standardized by the WHO to evaluate the efficacy of first- and second-line therapies. These studies, conducted every two years in most countries, will help to identify any development of resistance early, permitting a policy change to a new antimalarial. Top of Page Resistance to several antimalarial drugs has originated from the Greater Mekong Subregion. Recent documentation of the declining efficacy of mefloquine-artesunate among Burmese migrants in western Thailand has raised concerns that artemisinin resistance has already spread to the Thai-Burma border.

It is expected that this qualitative approach to analyzing healthcare—seeking patterns of migrant workers will help to improve programs to extend effective treatment to hard-to-reach populations in the area and contribute to containing any outbreak of ACT resistance.

Resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used on ITNs and one of the least expensive classes of insecticide used for IRS, has been spreading throughout Africa over the last decade. Although there is the option to switch to a different class of insecticides with IRS, albeit at a higher cost, there are currently no alternatives to pyrethroids on ITNs. CDC researchers are working to evaluate the effectiveness of ITNs in an area of substantial pyrethroid resistance, to provide epidemiologic confirmation that ITNs in this area do or do not continue to protect users from malaria infection.

Although no non-pyrethroid ITNs exist, several manufacturers have developed combination nets that incorporate a synergist a chemical that blocks the resistance mechanisms in the malaria vectors into the net fibers to render vectors susceptible to pyrethroids again, resulting in their death or repellency from the pyrethroid.

These combination nets are being evaluated entomologically and if proven effective at reducing infectious mosquito bites, they will be evaluated epidemiologically to show whether they improve malaria prevention in areas with substantial pyrethroid resistance. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content. Current and Future Research. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir.

Establish and integrate new or revisited interventions. Identify opportunities to integrate efforts with other initiatives. Conduct cutting-edge research and development in the laboratory and field that focuses primarily on malaria parasite transmission, emerging trends such as drug resistance, and host immune and pathological responses to malaria.

Evaluate and mitigate potential threats to malaria control, including insecticide and drug resistance. Optimize Mix of Current Interventions Proven tools for malaria control include early treatment of malaria illness with artemisinin-based combination therapies ACTs , intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women IPTp , and measures that reduce the risk of infection such as indoor residual spraying IRS or insecticide-treated bed nets ITNs.

Understanding whether IRS, with the addition of universal ITN coverage, results in lower malaria burden, or, alternatively, whether high ITN coverage can help to reduce the number of IRS rounds needed for sustained transmission reduction can help us to invest our resources more strategically. Establish and Integrate New or Revisited Interventions Along with scaling up proven interventions for malaria control, researchers are contemplating new interventions or updating previously used malaria control interventions.

Rapid malaria diagnostic tests have made it possible to expand laboratory diagnosis of malaria beyond health facilities with functioning microscopes to more outlying locations, even beyond the walls of remote health posts into endemic communities. Understanding the performance limitations of the current generation of rapid tests can help us decide how to deploy them most efficiently and may provide experience and evidence that can shape the next generation of diagnostic tools.

Evaluating strategies based on mass screening and treatment of healthy populations could suggest how diagnosis and treatment might be used to respond to localized outbreaks of malaria transmission in settings where effective control has been achieved and may ultimately contribute to elimination.

The use of insecticides has evolved, along with development of long-lasting wash-resistant applications for bed nets and new formulations for use in IRS. We are looking at the durability of the net fabric to determine the impact of holes on the protective efficacy of nets and how to make nets more durable.

When the mosquito bites the skin it begins to suck the human blood. During the time that the mosquito sucks the human blood, it also injects malaria plasmodia. Each Plasmodium then invades a liver cell and multiplies.

The liver cell will then burst, releasing a new form of Plasmodia. Then each Plasmodium enters a red blood cell and the plasmodium reproduction occurs again. The red blood cell then bursts releasing the Plasmodia to invade more red blood cells. As the process wears on many red blood cells are lost causing the fevers and chills. Some of the Plasmodia will then infect other mosquitoes when they bite the human host, repeating the process for another unfortunate fellow 6.

In order to know if you have malaria or not you have to be experiencing some of the symptoms or stages such as after twelve to thirty days the victim will undergo signs such as chills, fever, headache and fatigue. These effects can often be very painful and the excessive loss of red blood cells causes these symptoms.

The first stage of these attacks is called the cold stage. It is called this because you have chills and shaking for as much as one to two hours. The next stage is the hot stage. In this stage you will experience high fevers of sometimes degrees Fahrenheit for three to four hours. This fever is often escorted by coughing, headache, backache, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and delirium. The last stage is the wet stage. This is called the wet stage because you have profuse sweating for two to four hours 3.

Malaria is a hard disease to prevent because mosquitoes are so abundant. Therefore extreme measures are often taken. Installing screens or mosquito netting in living and sleeping quarters is a precaution you are advised to take while staying in a malaria hot spot. Insecticides are used to spray clothes with to lower the risk of running into mosquitoes. Before traveling to any malaria area always get prophylactic drug therapy before leaving 3. There is really no sure vaccine for malaria. There is also no sure cure or treatment for malaria 1.

Antibiotics often work to treat malaria because antibiotics are designed to kill chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are in parasite therefore antibiotics kill the parasites 4. With the different stages of the life cycle, the effectiveness of different treatments varies. Treatments that fight against liver schizonts are called tissue schizonticides. The treatments that act against red blood cell schizonts are called blood schizonticides.

Gametocides are also effective drugs. This treatment prevents infection of mosquitoes by getting rid of the gametocytes in the blood. Sporontical drugs are treatments that prevent gametocytes from ever getting infected. However, none of these drugs can prevent or treat actual infection 8. Not enough government funding is being used to research malaria.

This is resulting in not a lot of new research. A new study did come out however stating that parasites are more structurally complex than bacteria and viruses. This obviously results in a harder way to kill them.

No new drug has come out for malaria 2. No malaria treatment or vaccine is in sight. Both personal protection methods and anti-malarial medication are important, and neither should be neglected at the expense of the other.

If at all possible avoid being outdoors at night, when malaria carrying mosquitoes are more likely to bite. The exact choice of which to use depends both upon the particular area being visited, and the traveller's own medical history.

Within South Africa's borders either a combination of chloroquine with proguanil, or Mefloquine Mefliam alone are the commonly used anti-malaria tablets. Chloroquine and proguanil are available without a doctor's prescription. Mefloquine Mefliam can only be obtained with a doctor's prescription. Because of the emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of malaria in South Africa, chloroquine should not be taken alone but should always be combined with proguanil.

The adult dosage is two chloroquine tablets per week, starting one week before entering the malarious area. Proguanil may be started twenty-four hours before entering the malarious area, and two tablets must be taken every day. Both chloroquine and proguanil should be taken for four weeks after departing the malarious area, and both are best taken at night after a meal. Mefloquine Mefliam is taken in adult dosage of one tablet per week. This should be commenced at least one week before entering the malarious area and continued for four weeks after leaving the malarious area.

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Malaria Research Paper essays Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite that lives both in mosquitoes and humans (9). Malaria lives in tropical and sub-tropical areas such as Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Haiti, India, The Dominican Republic, Africa, Papua New Guinea, and Central and South Ameri.

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Free malaria papers, essays, and research papers. Analysis of Malaria - Malaria is one of the most prevalent and serious illnesses that affects a majority of the world’s population.

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Research Paper- Malaria Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite that lives both in mosquitoes and humans (9). Malaria lives in tropical and sub-tropical areas such as Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Haiti, India, The Dominican Republic, Africa, Papua New Guinea, and Central and South America (3). Research Papers Africa Fighting Malaria conducts research and writes commentary on the political economy of malaria and other diseases in developing countries. This includes but is not limited to the performance of national malaria control programs, donor and UN agencies, and the private sector.

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Malaria Research Paper This sample Malaria Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. Malaria research papers discuss the infectious disease that is transmitted to humans by mosquitos. Malaria is an infectious disease, transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, and vomiting.