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❶This finding influenced the future treatment of ADHD. ADHD symptoms also cause problems for the sufferer in educational settings, for children and in occupational settings, for adults.

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One incident sticks out in my mind; a boy threw a basketball at another boy for stealing the ball from him during a game. This boy was then told to go inside, sit down and put his head down. He then started to throw a temper tantrum, banged his head on the table and made his lip bleed.

For the rest of the day though, he was upset and just not his normal self. Life can be hard for children with Attention Deficit Disorder. ADD frustrates many children because of the fact that they can not concentrate and seem to always get into trouble, whether it is at home or in school. They also are shunned by a lot of children because of the way they act and treat others.

Some children are even too quiet or shy, so children do not even bother talking to them. The results Ritalin has on children with ADD, gives them a good self-image and higher self-esteem.

These children do not get into as much trouble, which means they are not always being yelled at or punished. Their grades improve along with their social skills.

Other children will now talk and play with them. As previously stated, if untreated, as children with ADD grow older, they are more likely to experience drug abuse, antisocial behavior, conduct disorders and injuries. A direct result of this was her grades improving tremendously. She also began talking more during class and with the other children.

It was obvious that her self-esteem had greatly improved. New research from the National Institute of Health explains why this is true. Oral doses of Ritalin take about sixty minutes to reach its peak. Concentration in the brain, compared to five minutes for cocaine or nine minutes for Ritalin taken intravenously. Some of these symptoms must have appeared before the age of seven. These symptoms must be present in two or more settings. There must be clear evidence of social, and academic problems.

These symptoms must not be part of another disorder such as autism. The need to have a specific guideline to diagnose ADHD is that children can show many of these symptoms due to other reasons.

For example, exceptional students in unstimulating academic situations become bored and, therefore, become inattentive. Children with learning difficulties, such as dyslexia become disengaged with work and, therefore, cannot keep up. So, they find it difficult to pay attention in reading. Therefore, these problems could be seen as ADHD symptoms, when infact they are not.

Hence, the need for a specific guideline for assessment, in order for a proper diagnoses of ADHD to be made. Statistics show that there are 70, children, aged six to sixteen in England and Wales who meet the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. The debate on what causes ADHD is a fairly broad one. The bottom line is, there is no exact known cause.

There has been many theories, and even some evidence to back up these theories. However, there has not been strong enough evidence to pinpoint an exact cause of ADHD. One theory is that there is a problem in the neurology of the brain in an ADHD person.

The lower portion of the brain contains an area known as the Reticular higher activating system. This keeps the brain centres alert and ready for input. Some evidence shows that in ADHD people, this part of the brain is not working properly. A man named Larry Stein in performed research into the neurophysiological aspect of the brain.

He showed that humans experiences are hinged on their past, present and future experiences. This is because the brain stores memories of these experiences. When this mechanism is working properly, people are organised in time and in their behaviour.

This is because people tend to repeat good behaviour if their reward is satisfactory. They avoid bad behaviour because of the possible punishment they will receive. Also, when this mechanism is working properly, people have the ability to connect their feelings to events, behaviour and objects, therefore, are able to identify with others. However, when this mechanism is not working, problems occur.

One day the child, Stefan, insults his music teacher. It is as if a filter is missing between thought and action. Another problem that occurs when this mechanism is not working properly is the inability to keep focused on any one activity. According to Larry Stein, this is because there is no stored memory, therefore, each event or environmental stimulus is reacted to as if it is new. Thus, the child is unable to concentrate and complete tasks.

Another problem is that the person seeks instant gratification. During the present moment the child does not remember that a reward for their behaviour could be delayed, thus, they seek instant gratification. Also, the child has no expectation of punishment, therefore, tends to repeat the same unacceptable behaviours. According to the researchers, this then shows that ADHD children do not respond to punishment. Another problem if this mechanism is not working properly is that the person is unable to bond with others.

Therefore, they cannot empathise with others, so their behaviour tends to be selfish, bossy and bullying towards others, because they see only themselves at the centre of their existence.

Studies show ADHD in adulthood is more severe and may cause long term effects. Diagnosing ADHD is very difficult, because most children are inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive at least some of the time. When diagnosing there is no blood test, or written test to determine if ADHD is present. All there is are guidelines and an educated guess.

The guidelines include, " A disturbance of at least six months during which at least eight of the following are present: In order to diagnose ADHD, these symptoms must occur more frequent than children of the same age and must occur in more than one sitting.

LeFever also conducted another study which she examined records of student enrolled in the second through fifth grade once again, but she chose two specific cities this time, Portsmouth and Virginia Beach.

She chose these two cities, because they are the most diverse cities in Virginia, Portsmouth is a small, urban, poor, mostly black district, while Virginia Beach, Virginia is a larger, more wealthy, and mostly white district.

LeFever and her researchers found that ADHD medication was used three times as many boys as with girls and twice as many whites as blacks. The researchers also found that the use of medication increased as the children aged.

Scientists do not know what causes ADHD, however, they have discredited many theories that ADHD was a result from minor head injuries or undetectable brain damage due to infections or complications during birth.

Another theory blamed the consumption of refined sugar and food additives, a study was done and it showed that very few ADHD children benefited from a special diet. Another theory junked was the theory of bad parenting or a dysfunctional home life. Physicians in the United States diagnose the disorder more often than doctors elsewhere in the world," contributed Michael Woods to Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia.

Researchers examined about 30, grade-school children in two districts in southeastern Virginia and found that pupils took drugs for ADHD in school at two to three times the expected rate, according to the study in the American Journal of Public Health.

McCormick, a faculty member in the family medicine department at Louisiana State University medical school. He said that his study confirmed that his suspicion that kids are being overdiagnosed. These include medication, counseling, social skills training, and other methods. Drugs are the most common treatment for ADHD and can help reduce symptoms of the disorder. Physicians usually prescribe one of three drugs: The drugs work by altering levels of neurotransmitters, brain chemicals that transmit nerve signals.

Medical experts regard stimulants as safe. The most common side effects include stomachaches, loss of appetite, nervousness, and insomnia. Drug therapy may slow a child"s rate of growth temporarily, but growth usually returns to normal during adolescence. Low doses of stimulants do not cause a "high" sensation, sedate the child, or cause addiction. Experts often recommend that children take medication only during school, with medication breaks on weekends and holidays to reduce unwanted side effects," contributed by Michael Woods, to Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia.

Drugs only relieve symptoms of ADHD, which usually return when medication is discontinued. Although drugs help a child to concentrate and complete schoolwork, they cannot increase a child"s knowledge, teach academic skills, or directly alter underlying learning disorders or other problems," contributed Michael Woods to Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia.

There are many ways to treat ADHD without medication, there are several kinds of therapy, to help not only the patient, but the family too. Therapy helps the patient deal with the negative feelings that result form their symptoms.

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- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Introduction Among the behavioural disorders that are commonly diagnosed, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent among youth and children.

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RESEARCH PAPER ON ADHD Abstract Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral development disorder among children. In the United States there are at least 2 million grade school children that are diagnosed with the disorder (Dupper, ).

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