Having endured slavery, discrimination, and constant denial of their fundamental rights by white Americans, blacks began standing up for their rights and demanding those freedoms delegated in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. The Declaration of Independence affirms that all men are made equal and guarantees no person or class of persons shall be deprived of their unalienable rights, such as their right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. One of the denied civil liberties of blacks was the right to vote.
When that right was finally granted, many barriers were set in place to further keep blacks from exercising their right to vote, such as poll taxes, literacy tests, and other prerequisites. In the 15th, 19th, and 26th amendment, the constitution prohibits discrimination of voting on the basis of race, color, previous enslavement, and gender, but awards the right to vote to all U. The point of the Fifteenth Amendment was to force states to give blacks their fundamental right to vote.
Because of this amendment, southern states came up with a plethora of alternative methods intended to disenfranchise blacks. For example, Georgia initiated a poll tax and required back taxes be paid before being allowed to vote.
It was to exclude people from voting, not to gain income, since not one state took suit on any human being for not paying the tax. The Twenty-fourth Amendment prohibited poll taxes as a qualification to vote in elections for the President, diplomatic constituents, and congress.
It also granted Congress the authority to carry out the twenty fourth amendment with fitting legislature. The Joint Committee on Reconstruction promoted the idea of suffrage for all races prior to the fifteenth amendment. South Carolina came up with the first literacy test where its voters had to use separate boxes for separate electoral offices. Another justification for restricting the exercise of Freedom of Expression is its responsibility to promote an environment that is conducive to learning.
A university or college is an institution of learning. The school may not be able to perform its function of transmitting knowledge and giving birth to new ideas if the students are distracted by acts and conducts which interferes with learning.
Thus, it becomes the responsibility of the school to suppress and limit certain conduct so that the administrators are able to promote learning. Because of the diversity of cultures, races, sexual preferences and orientations of the students in the school, personality clashes are bound to arise.
Though these students may not actually inflict physical harm against the minority students, their personality clashes may cross the line of simple diversity and may actually result to one group of students inflicting verbal assaults and hateful language or even violence. As a result one group of student belonging to a particular race or culture may actually be harassed by the others. Thus, school administrators have the duty not only to promote an atmosphere of learning for the students, but also to promote respect amidst these diversity.
Reasons why Exercise of Freedom of Expression should be Upheld. Freedom of thought and expression are essential to any educational institutions. As Socrates, the Greek Philosopher once said, educational institutions exist not only to transmit to their students established and existing knowledge but they must also help their students expand these established knowledge or give birth to new ideas and knowledge. Schools serve as a training ground for students to market their ideas. If these ideas will be restricted and curtailed then the quality of ideas that we have for our society will remain stagnant.
Also, the kinds of citizens that our country will have will be similar to automated robots who do not know how to think for themselves. We cannot risk the future of our society to ideas that have not withstood the tests of time and the test of competition in the market of ideas. It is sad that the highest court of the land, the Supreme Court, does not seem to have a clear stand on this issue.
In some cases, the Supreme Court of the United States has ruled in favor of the students thereby upholding their First Amendment right. On the other hand, in some cases the Supreme Court has ruled in favor of the school officials thereby restricting their First Amendment rights. In this case, three students wore their armband to school as an expression if their objection to the hostility in Vietnam and their support for a truce.
These advantages caused the war to be drawn out, as the South struggled to stay in the war. After the first battle of Bull Run in July 21, , the North was forced to retreat. This battle revealed the lack of experience and organization of both sides. Winfield Scott came up with a strategy for Lincoln's union forces called the Anaconda Plan. The first part of the plan involved a naval blockade, which turned out to be difficult considering the large coastline.
Under the secretary of Navy, Gideon Welles, the navy was expanded and became increasingly effective. The next part of Welles' plan included a campaign to take the Mississippi, which Lincoln ordered. Lincoln also wanted to raise a large enough army to apply pressure from all sides hoping to collapse the confederacy. The Union was very successful in the West under the aggressive Ulysses S. Grant, who planned to take the two confederate strongholds of Fort Henry and Donelson. He succeeded in February With the capture of New Orleans as well as other northern victories the Union had almost total control of the Mississippi River, aside from a mile stretch.
- American Civil Liberties Union The American Civil Liberties Union is an organization which takes on the issues of concern to the American public and any violations of their rights, or liberties, including discrimination.
Essay: Civil liberties For many years, gaining equality has been an objective of many blacks in America. Having endured slavery, discrimination, and constant denial of their fundamental rights by white Americans, blacks began standing up for their rights and demanding those freedoms delegated in the Declaration of Independence and the .
Civil Liberties During WWII many civil liberties were affected and felt by the American people; some of these decisions include new policies . Civil liberty, as opposed to natural liberty, refers to the liberty enjoyed by man in society. Freedom in isolation is meaningless. Freedom, to be real, involves the capacity to do or enjoy things in common with others, and no individual can permanently separate his own good from the common good.
Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Essay. The Thirteenth Amendment ended slavery and African American slaves gained their freedom during the Civil War; however, this did not mean they were fully integrated into American society. After the . Civil Liberties (And how they differ from civil rights) "If the fires of freedom and civil liberties burn low in other lands, they must be made brighter in our own. If in other lands the press and books and literature of all kinds are censored, we must redouble our efforts here to keep them free.