However, operation of these computers required extensive intelligence and manpower resources. The average person could not have fathomed trying to operate and use these million dollar processors.
The United States was attributed the title of pioneering the computer. It was not until the early 's that nations such as Japan and the United Kingdom started utilizing technology of their own for the development of the computer. This resulted in newer components and smaller sized computers. The use and operation of computers had developed into a form that people of average intelligence could handle and manipulate without to much ado.
When the economies of other nations started to compete with the United States, the computer industry expanded at a great rate. Prices dropped dramatically and computers became more affordable to the average household.
Like the invention of the wheel, the computer is here to stay. The operation and use of computers in our present era of the 's has become so easy and simple that perhaps we may have taken too much for granted. Almost everything of use in society requires some form of training or education. Many people say that the predecessor to the computer was the typewriter.
The typewriter definitely required training and experience in order to operate it at a usable and efficient level. Children are being taught basic computer skills in the classroom in order to prepare them for the future evolution of the computer age. The history of computers started out about years ago, at the birth of the abacus, a wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with beads strung on them. When these beads are moved around, according to programming rules memorized by the user, all regular arithmetic problems can be done.
Another important invention around the same time was the Astrolabe, used for navigation. Blaise Pascal is usually credited for building the first digital computer in It added numbers entered with dials and was made to help his father, a tax collector. In , Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invented a computer that was built in It could add, and, after changing some things around, multiply. Leibnitz invented a special stopped gear mechanism for introducing the addend digits, and this is still being used.
The prototypes made by Pascal and Leibnitz were not used in many places, and considered weird until a little more than a century later, when Thomas of Colmar A. Charles Xavier Thomas created the first successful mechanical calculator that could add, subtract, multiply, and divide. A lot of improved desktop calculators by many inventors followed, so that by about , the range of improvements included: Accumulation of partial results, storage and automatic reentry of past results A memory function , and printing of the results.
Each of these required manual installation. These improvements were mainly made for commercial users, and not for the needs of science. While Thomas of Colmar was developing the desktop calculator, a series of very interesting developments in computers was started in Cambridge, England, by Charles Babbage of which the computer store "Babbages" is named , a mathematics professor.
In , Babbage realized that many long calculations, especially those needed to make mathematical tables, were really a series of predictable actions that were constantly repeated. From this he suspected that it should be possible to do these automatically. He began to design an automatic mechanical calculating machine, which he called a difference engine.
By , he had a working model to demonstrate. Financial help from the British Government was attained and Babbage started fabrication of a difference engine in It was intended to be steam powered and fully automatic, including the printing of the resulting tables, and commanded by a fixed instruction program.
The difference engine, although having limited adaptability and applicability, was really a great advance. Babbage continued to work on it for the next 10 years, but in he lost interest because he thought he had a better idea; the construction of what would now be called a general purpose, fully program-controlled, automatic mechanical digital computer.
Babbage called this idea an Analytical Engine. The ideas of this design showed a lot of foresight, although this couldn't be appreciated until a full century later. The plans for this engine required an identical decimal computer operating on numbers of 50 decimal digits or words and having a storage capacity memory of 1, such digits.
The built-in operations were supposed to include everything that a modern general - purpose computer would need, even the all important Conditional Control Transfer Capability that would allow commands to be executed in any order, not just the order in which they were programmed.
As people can see, it took quite a large amount of intelligence and fortitude to come to the 's style and use of computers. People have assumed that computers are a natural development in society and take them for granted. Just as people have learned to drive an automobile, it also takes skill and learning to utilize a computer.
Computers in society have become difficult to understand. Exactly what they consisted of and what actions they performed were highly dependent upon the type of computer. To say a person had a typical computer doesn't necessarily narrow down just what the capabilities of that computer was. Computer styles and types covered so many different functions and actions, that it was difficult to name them all.
The original computers of the 's were easy to define their purpose when they were first invented. They primarily performed mathematical functions many times faster than any person could have calculated.
However, the evolution of the computer had created many styles and types that were greatly dependent on a well defined purpose.
The computers of the 's roughly fell into three groups consisting of mainframes, networking units, and personal computers. Mainframe computers were extremely large sized modules and had the capabilities of processing and storing massive amounts of data in the form of numbers and words.
Mainframes were the first types of computers developed in the 's. Users of these types of computers ranged from banking firms, large corporations and government agencies. They usually were very expensive in cost but designed to last at least five to ten years. Firstly, to know what is computer software and wireless Information systems and then secondly to discuss about their affects upon each other. Computer software is basically some programs or events that are written just to achieve certain The Turing Test TT is used to test whether computers have mentality.
The set up of the test is as follows: All three subjects are accessible to each other via a chat program and nothing else. The first subject is a real person, a human being.
The second subject is a computer. The third subject is an interrogator whose job It is unfortunate to see that the number of computer crimes is increasing and has been considerably swelling during the last few decades. However, computer and information technology provide many benefits for everyone. Although, they have sometimes used to annoy or harm people. This trend has caused several social issues as public property, unauthorized using password of someone, stealing a billion dollar from bank or For example, a human error in cash flow data can critically affect the management of a business and even result in an HMRC tax fine.
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A brief history behind the invention of computer is as follows: It has rods to perform arithmetic calculations The device was widely used by accountants and bookkeepers Blaise Pascal: Each wheel displayed the digit 0 to 9 Only could do was add and subtract numbers Von Leibnitz: A French scientist who developed a machine which could perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division Punched Board: Later on, the system was used computing devices Charles Babbage: He invented a analytical engine in that was automatic This engine could perform 60 additions per minute Herman Hollerith: In , Herman applied the idea of punchboards in computers He used punch cards for input and output Atanasoff: Different generation of computer is as follows: It contains millions of electronic circuits Examples are Apple Macintosh, and IBM PC Advantages More powerful and reliable than previous generations Very small size Less power consumption and less heat generated Fan for heat discharging No air conditioning is required Best speed to read instructions i.
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The History of Computers Essay - The History of Computers In order to fully understand the history of computers and computers in general, it is important to understand what it is exactly that lead up to the invention of the computer. After all, there was a time when the use of laptops, P.C.s, and other machines was unthinkable.
The history of computers is short but very complicated. Computers have been through lot of changes throughout the past half-century. They also affect our society in many different ways today. The following paper describes how the computers have changed from to present.
History Essay Since the beginning of time there has been a need for oneself to keep track of ones trading transactions by applying some method to calculate in a fair and accurate manner. /5(3). The history of computers can be divided into generations, roughly defined by technological advances, which led to improvements in design, efficiency, and ease of use. First Generation Computers ()- As the Second World War was about to start, governments sought to develop computers to exploit their potential strategic importance and to help them develop new computerized weapons and new .
Essay about History of the Computer Words | 5 Pages. History of the Computer The first devices that resemble modern computers date to the midth century (around - ), although the computer concept and various machines similar to computers existed earlier. Most computers at this time were termed "mainframes" due to the fact that many computers were linked together to perform a given function. The primary user of these types of computers were military agencies and large corporations such as Bell, AT&T, General Electric, and Boeing.