The field of health psychology focuses in part on how stress affects bodily functioning and on how people can use stress management techniques to prevent or minimize disease. Stressors vary in severity and duration. For example, the responsibility of caring for a sick parent may be an ongoing source At the same time, it is also the case that Black women To clarify what is meant by "teams," Jon R. Katzenback and Douglas K.
When the rats were examined, they had "swollen and hyperactive adrenal glands, shrunken immune tissue thym To understand this concep This type of stress continues to release different hormones which results in the This paper intends to provide an overview of different aspects of stress, including definition, dimensions, work and stress, envir Specifically, this study focused on discerning how indicators of the "psychosocial work climate" affected the frequency w Plus Program, that was implemented in the study performed by Resnick and colleagues was found, among other benefits, to improve af New to eCheat Create an Account!
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I will get help from their writers once more if I have the need. Simply put, during times of acute crisis, eating, growth, and sexual activity may be a detriment to physical integrity and even survival. Stress hormones are produced by the SNS and hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical axis. The SNS stimulates the adrenal medulla to produce catecholamines e. In parallel, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus produces corticotropin releasing factor, which in turn stimulates the pituitary to produce adrenocorticotropin.
Adrenocorticotropin then stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol. Together, catecholamines and cortisol increase available sources of energy by promoting lipolysis and the conversion of glycogen into glucose i. Lipolysis is the process of breaking down fats into usable sources of energy i. Energy is then distributed to the organs that need it most by increasing blood pressure levels and contracting certain blood vessels while dilating others.
Blood pressure is increased with one of two hemodynamic mechanisms Llabre et al. The myocardial mechanism increases blood pressure through enhanced cardiac output; that is, increases in heart rate and stroke volume i. The vascular mechanism constricts the vasculature, thereby increasing blood pressure much like constricting a hose increases water pressure. Specific stressors tend to elicit either myocardial or vascular responses, providing evidence of situational stereotypy Saab et al.
Laboratory stressors that call for active coping strategies, such as giving a speech or performing mental arithmetic, require the participant to do something and are associated with myocardial responses. From an evolutionary perspective, cardiac responses are believed to facilitate active coping by shunting blood to skeletal muscles, consistent with the fight-or-flight response. In situations where decisive action would not be appropriate, but instead skeletal muscle inhibition and vigilance are called for, a vascular hemodynamic response is adaptive.
The vascular response shunts blood away from the periphery to the internal organs, thereby minimizing potential bleeding in the case of physical assault. Finally, in addition to the increased availability and redistribution of energy, the acute stress response includes activation of the immune system. Cells of the innate immune system e.
From there, the immune cells migrate into tissues that are most likely to suffer damage during physical confrontation e. The acute stress response can become maladaptive if it is repeatedly or continuously activated Selye For example, chronic SNS stimulation of the cardiovascular system due to stress leads to sustained increases in blood pressure and vascular hypertrophy Henry et al.
That is, the muscles that constrict the vasculature thicken, producing elevated resting blood pressure and response stereotypy, or a tendency to respond to all types of stressors with a vascular response. Chronically elevated blood pressure forces the heart to work harder, which leads to hypertrophy of the left ventricle Brownley et al.
Over time, the chronically elevated and rapidly shifting levels of blood pressure can lead to damaged arteries and plaque formation. The elevated basal levels of stress hormones associated with chronic stress also suppress immunity by directly affecting cytokine profiles. Cytokines are communicatory molecules produced primarily by immune cells see Roitt et al.
There are three classes of cytokines. Proinflammatory cytokines mediate acute inflammatory reactions. Th1 cytokines mediate cellular immunity by stimulating natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, immune cells that target intracellular pathogens e.
A Th2 shift has the effect of suppressing cellular immunity in favor of humoral immunity. In response to more chronic stressors e. Intermediate and chronic stressors are associated with slower wound healing and recovery from surgery, poorer antibody responses to vaccination, and antiviral deficits that are believed to contribute to increased vulnerability to viral infections e.
Chronic stress is particularly problematic for elderly people in light of immunosenescence, the gradual loss of immune function associated with aging. Older adults are less able to produce antibody responses to vaccinations or combat viral infections Ferguson et al.
Although research has yet to link poor vaccination responses to early mortality, influenza and other infectious illnesses are a major cause of mortality in the elderly, even among those who have received vaccinations e.
Both epidemiological and controlled studies have demonstrated relationships between psychosocial stressors and disease. The underlying mediators, however, are unclear in most cases, although possible mechanisms have been explored in some experimental studies.
An occupational gradient in coronary heart disease CHD risk has been documented in which men with relatively low socioeconomic status have the poorest health outcomes Marmot Much of the risk gradient in CHD can be eliminated, however, by taking into account lack of perceived job control, which is a potent stressor Marmot et al.
Other factors include risky behaviors such as smoking, alcohol use, and sedentary lifestyle Lantz et al. Among men Schnall et al. However, in women with existing CHD, marital stress is a better predictor of poor prognosis than is work stress Orth-Gomer et al.
Although the observational studies cited thus far reveal provocative associations between psychosocial stressors and disease, they are limited in what they can tell us about the exact contribution of these stressors or about how stress mediates disease processes. Animal models provide an important tool for helping to understand the specific influences of stressors on disease processes. This is especially true of atherosclerotic CHD, which takes multiple decades to develop in humans and is influenced by a great many constitutional, demographic, and environmental factors.
It would also be unethical to induce disease in humans by experimental means. Perhaps the best-known animal model relating stress to atherosclerosis was developed by Kaplan et al. Their study was carried out on male cynomolgus monkeys, who normally live in social groups. The investigators stressed half the animals by reorganizing five-member social groups at one- to three-month intervals on a schedule that ensured that each monkey would be housed with several new animals during each reorganization.
The other half of the animals lived in stable social groups. All animals were maintained on a moderately atherogenic diet for 22 months. Animals were also assessed for their social status i.
The major findings were that a socially dominant animals living in unstable groups had significantly more atherosclerosis than did less dominant animals living in unstable groups; and b socially dominant male animals living in unstable groups had significantly more atherosclerosis than did socially dominant animals living in stable groups. Other important findings based upon this model have been that heart-rate reactivity to the threat of capture predicts severity of atherosclerosis Manuck et al.
In contrast to the findings in males, subordinate premenstrual females develop greater atherosclerosis than do dominant females Kaplan et al.
Whereas the studies in cynomolgus monkeys indicate that emotionally stressful behavior can accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis, McCabe et al. This rabbit model has a genetic defect in lipoprotein clearance such that it exhibits hypercholesterolemia and severe atherosclerosis.
The rabbits were assigned to one of three social or behavioral groups: The stable group exhibited more affiliative behavior and less agonistic behavior than the unstable group and significantly less atherosclerosis than each of the other two groups.
The study emphasizes the importance of behavioral factors in atherogenesis, even in a model of disease with extremely strong genetic determinants. The hypothesis that stress predicts susceptibility to the common cold received support from observational studies Graham et al.
One problem with such studies is that they do not control for exposure. Stressed people, for instance, might seek more outside contact and thus be exposed to more viruses. Therefore, in a more controlled study, people were exposed to a rhinovirus and then quarantined to control for exposure to other viruses Cohen et al.
Those individuals with the most stressful life events and highest levels of perceived stress and negative affect had the greatest probability of developing cold symptoms. In a subsequent study of volunteers inoculated with a cold virus, it was found that people enduring chronic, stressful life events i.
The impact of life stressors has also been studied within the context of human immunodeficiency virus HIV spectrum disease. Despite the stress-mediated immunosuppressive effects reviewed above, stress has also been associated with exacerbations of autoimmune disease Harbuz et al. Evidence suggests that a chronically activated, dysregulated acute stress response is responsible for these associations.
Recall that the acute stress response includes the activation and migration of cells of the innate immune system. This effect is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines.
During periods of chronic stress, in the otherwise healthy individual, cortisol eventually suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production. But in individuals with autoimmune disease or CHD, prolonged stress can cause proinflammatory cytokine production to remain chronically activated, leading to an exacerbation of pathophysiology and symptomatology.
With cortisol unable to suppress inflammation, stress continues to promote proinflammatory cytokine production indefinitely. Although there is only preliminary empirical support for this model, it could have implications for diseases of inflammation. For example, in rheumatoid arthritis, excessive inflammation is responsible for joint damage, swelling, pain, and reduced mobility.
Stress is associated with more swelling and reduced mobility in rheumatoid arthritis patients Affleck et al. Similarly, in multiple sclerosis MS , an overactive immune system targets and destroys the myelin surrounding nerves, contributing to a host of symptoms that include paralysis and blindness.
Again, stress is associated with an exacerbation of disease Mohr et al. Even in CHD, inflammation plays a role.
The immune system responds to vascular injury just as it would any other wound: Immune cells migrate to and infiltrate the arterial wall, setting off a cascade of biochemical processes that can ultimately lead to a thrombosis i.
Elevated levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein CRP , are predictive of heart attacks, even when controlling for other traditional risk factors e. Interestingly, a history of major depressive episodes has been associated with elevated levels of CRP in men Danner et al. In addition to its effects on physical health, prolonged proinflammatory cytokine production may also adversely affect mental health in vulnerable individuals. During times of illness e.
It was once thought that these symptoms were directly caused by infectious pathogens, but more recently, it has become clear that proinflammatory cytokines are both sufficient and necessary i. Sickness behavior has been suggested to be a highly organized strategy that mammals use to combat infection Dantzer Symptoms of illness, as previously thought, are not inconsequential or even maladaptive. On the contrary, sickness behavior is thought to promote resistance and facilitate recovery.
For example, an overall decrease in activity allows the sick individual to preserve energy resources that can be redirected toward enhancing immune activity. Similarly, limiting exploration, mating, and foraging further preserves energy resources and reduces the likelihood of risky encounters e. Furthermore, decreasing food intake also decreases the level of iron in the blood, thereby decreasing bacterial replication.
Thus, for a limited period, sickness behavior may be looked upon as an adaptive response to the stress of illness. Much like other aspects of the acute stress response, however, sickness behavior can become maladaptive when repeatedly or continuously activated. Many features of the sickness behavior response overlap with major depression. Indeed, compared with healthy controls, elevated rates of depression are reported in patients with inflammatory diseases such as MS Mohr et al.
Granted, MS patients face a number of stressors and reports of depression are not surprising. However, when compared with individuals facing similar disability who do not have MS e. In both MS Fassbender et al. Thus, there is evidence to suggest that stress contributes to both physical and mental disease through the mediating effects of proinflammatory cytokines.
The changes in biological set points that occur across the life span as a function of chronic stressors are referred to as allostasis, and the biological cost of these adjustments is known as allostatic load McEwen McEwen has also suggested that cumulative increases in allostatic load are related to chronic illness.
These are intriguing hypotheses that emphasize the role that stressors may play in disease. The challenge, however, is to show the exact interactions that occur among stressors, pathogens, host vulnerability both constitutional and genetic , and such poor health behaviors as smoking, alcohol abuse, and excessive caloric consumption.
Evidence of a lifetime trajectory of comorbidities does not necessarily imply that allostatic load is involved since immunosenescence, genetic predisposition, pathogen exposure, and poor health behaviors may act as culprits. It is not clear, for example, that changes in set point for variables such as blood pressure are related to cumulative stressors per se, at least in healthy young individuals.
Thus, for example, British soldiers subjected to battlefield conditions for more than a year in World War II showed chronic elevations in blood pressure, which returned to normal after a couple of months away from the front Graham In contrast, individuals with chronic illnesses such as chronic fatigue syndrome may show a high rate of relapse after a relatively acute stressor such as a hurricane Lutgendorf et al.
Nevertheless, by emphasizing the role that chronic stressors may play in multiple disease outcomes, McEwen has helped to emphasize an important area of study. Psychopharmacological approaches have also been suggested Berlant In addition, writing about trauma has been helpful both for affective recovery and for potential health benefit Pennebaker However, the presence of sleep problems or hypercortisolemia is associated with poorer response to psychotherapy Thase The combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy seems to offer a substantial advantage over psychotherapy alone for the subset of patients who are more severely depressed or have recurrent depression Thase et al.
For the treatment of anxiety, it depends partly on the specific disorder [e. Antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors also show efficacy in anxiety Ballenger et al.
Patients dealing with chronic, life-threatening diseases must often confront daily stressors that can threaten to undermine even the most resilient coping strategies and overwhelm the most abundant interpersonal resources. Psychosocial interventions, such as cognitive-behavioral stress management CBSM , have a positive effect on the quality of life of patients with chronic disease Schneiderman et al.
Such interventions decrease perceived stress and negative mood e. Psychosocial interventions also appear to help chronic pain patients reduce their distress and perceived pain as well as increase their physical activity and ability to return to work Morley et al. There is also some evidence that psychosocial interventions may have a favorable influence on disease progression Schneiderman et al.
Psychosocial intervention trials conducted upon patients following acute myocardial infarction MI have reported both positive and null results. Most of these studies were carried out in men.
Research Paper on Stress Stress (psychology) I INTRODUCTION Stress (psychology), an unpleasant state of emotional and physiological arousal that people experience in situations that they perceive as .
Research Paper on Stress January 5, writer Research Papers 0 Stress is the normal reaction of human psychics on the negative environment and constant pressure of work and household chores.
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